sábado, 1 de agosto de 2009


Bob Goudzwaard is professor emeritus, at the Free University in Amsterdam. He was elected to the Dutch Parliament in the 1970s and served for a time in a Christian policy research institute in The Hague. He is the author of numerous books including Capitalism and Progress and Hope in Troubled Times

Bruce Wearne interviews Bob Goudzwaard here [pdf].

Annotated Bibliography
Bruce C. Wearne Cultivating Care within a Vulnerable Economy: an annotated bibliography of the English writings of Bob Goudzwaard 1967-2007 [pdf December 2007; 101+ xvii pages (approx 1 MB)]

Bruce C Wearne Cultivating Care within a Vulnerable Economy: an annotated bibliography of the English writings of Bob Goudzwaard 1967-2008 [pdf June 2008; 104+ xix pages (approx 1.1 MB)]

A Dutch bibliography from Herman Noordegraaf and Sander Griffioen (eds) Bewogen Realisme: economie, cultuur, oecumene - bij het afscheid van Bob Goudzwaard Kok, Kampen 1999 pp 230-237. [pdf]

Bibliography compiled by Bruce Wearne


1. "The Christian and Modern Business Enterprise 1" The Guide Oct pp 10-11,14

2. "The Christian and Modern Business Enterprise 2" The Guide Nov pp 10-11, 14

3. "The Christian and Modern Business Enterprise 3" The Guide Dec pp 6-7


4. The Christian and Modern Business Enterprise Ontario CLAC 20 pp


5. "English Summary" Ongeprijsde schaarste, een onderzoek naar de plaats van expretiale of ongecompenseerde effecten in de theoretische economie en de leer der economische politiek Den Haag, Van Stockum pp. 163-169.

6. "Incomes and their Distribution" (translation of study paper published in Patrimonium, October 1970) 16 pp.


7. "Summary" (of "Economie tussen afbraak en doorbraak. Verleden en toekomst van een gesloten wereldbeeld") Philosophia Reformata 36e Jrg pp. 53-54

8. "Christian Economics?" Vanguard October/ Nov pp 17-19

9. "The Choice Between What Is and What Ought to be" Vanguard Dec pp 24-27


10. A Christian Political Option (trans Herman Praamsma of Grote taak voor kleine mensen : hoofdlijnen voor een evangelisch beleid Antirevolutionaire Partij-Stichting 1969) Toronto, Wedge, 66 pages.

11. "Income Differentials Adrift" (Translated with an Introduction by Edward Vanderkloet, Christian Labour Association of Canada) February, 16 pages.

12. "Have our Gods Failed Us?" Vanguard August/ September pp. 8-10,19,23.

13. Economic Stewardship versus Capitalist Religion - a Series of Seminar Lectures Institute for Christian Studies, Toronto


14. "Religion and Labour" The Guide Oct pp 6-7


15. "The Dynamic of the Word of God in Economics (1)" The Guide Apr pp 10-14

16. "The Dynamic of the Word of God in Economics(2)" The Guide May pp 8-13

17. "Asking Questions - Making Decisions: An Interview with Bob Goudzwaard and Anthony Cramp" Vanguard Sept/Oct pp 14-17

18. "From Death to Shalom" Vanguard Nov/ Dec pp.


19. "Socioeconomic Life - a Way of Confession" International Reformed Bulletin Winter/Spring 1975

20. "Calling or Consensus?" The Guide March pp. 8-9 pdf

21. "Authority abused" Vanguard Apr pp 8-10

22. "Responsibility in a Changing Society" The Guide Aug/Sept pp 8-10 pdf

23. "Reply by Dr Goudzwaard" The Guide Aug/Sept p 14

24. Aid for the Overdeveloped West, Toronto, Wedge Publication. 90 pp

NOTE This book has 8 chapters with an introduction by Wedge editor Bonnie M Greene.
Chapter One: "The overdevelopment of the west" is a translated adaptation of a Dutch radio talk.

Chapter Two: "Our gods have failed us" is a re-publication of Nos 15 and 16 with a new name. It is reprinted at No.37 below.

Chapter Three: "Socioeconomic life: a way of confession" first appeared as No 19 above and was republished at No. 44 below.

Chapter Four: "The liberation of the business enterprise" republishes No 4 which was an edited collation of Nos 1, 2 and 3. It is partly republished as "What is Corporate Enterprise" at No. 91 below.

Chapter Five: "From economic death to shalom" republishes No. 18.

Chapter Six: "Beyond the happiness of the machine" is a translated adaptation of a talk to a Dutch Christian labour education centre. It republishes "Responsibility in a changing society", No. 22 above.

Chapter Seven: "The re-humanized work community" a slightly revised version of No.14.

Chapter Eight: "Towards a just income distribution" is an edited version of No. 11 written for this volume.


25. "Economics and Christian Faith - an Interview with Bob Goudzwaard by M de Klijn" (trans by T Plantinga from C Boertien Christenen doorgelicht: vraaggesprekken met C. Boertien, R. Boiten, B. Goudzwaard, J. van der Graaf, H. Rookmaaker, K. Runia en H. van Straelen Stichting Interlektuur 1974) Vanguard Jan/Feb pp 6-9; Mar/Apr pp. 13-16

26. "Not By Bread Alone" Election Program 1977-1981 Christen Democratisch Appél, Den Haag (translation of "Niet bij brood alleen" by Perry Recker) 110 pages


27. "Economic Life: a Confession" (1st of 2 parts) The Guide May pp 6-7

28. "Economic Life: a Confession" (2nd of 2 parts) The Guide June pp 8-10

29. "Economic Life: a Confession" in Edward Vander Kloet (ed) A Christian Union in Labour’s Wasteland Toronto, Wedge pp 45-58.

30. "Planning Economic Systems and the Future of our Society" International Reformed Bulletin No 73 pp 18-23

31. with Johan van Baars "Norms for the International Economic Order" (with responses from Johan D van der Vyver, and James Skillen) in Justice in the International Economic Order Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Reformed Institutions for Christian Higher Education Aug 13-19, 1978 Calvin College pp 223-253.
Edited excerpts from Part A: A Normative Approach (pp 223-224 & 229-239) are republished at No. 49 below.


32. "Principles and Political Action" in Christian Political Options Libertas Utrecht, ARP Stichting, pp 64-78 pdf

33. "Scarcity of Time" Vanguard July-Aug p. 19 pdf

34. Capitalism and Progress, a Diagnosis of Western Society trans & edited by Josina van Nuis-Zylstra, Grand Rapids Eerdmans/ Toronto Wedge 270 pp


35. Towards Reformation in Economics, Syllabus distributed by Association for the Advancement of Christian Scholarship, Toronto: ICS. 57 pages.

36. Types of Government Economic Policy Association for the Advancement of Christian Scholarship, Toronto: ICS, 15 pages.

For other copies available see below No. 58.


37. "Our gods have failed us" in William A Harper and Theodore R Malloch eds Where Are We Now? The State of Christian Political Reflection Washington, University Press of America pp 212-226. This is a republication of the chapter by the same name in No 24 (Chapter Two) which republished under a new name articles Nos 15 and 16.


38. Idols of Our Time Foreword Howard Snyder ed Mark Vander Vennen. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, 114 pages.


39. "How I wish North American evangelicals would influence US foreign policy in Europe" Transformation 2 (3) (1985) pp. 24-25. [off site]


40. "Christian Social Thought in the Dutch Neo-Calvinist Tradition" in Walter Blok and Irving Hexham eds Religion, Economics and Social Thought: Proceedings of an International Conference Vancouver: Fraser Institute pp 251-65.


41. "Centrally planned economies: strengths, weaknesses and the future" Transformation 4 (3-4) (1987): 54-59.[off site]

42. "Creation management: the economics of earth stewardship" Epiphany Journal , 8 (Fall) pp. 37-45, (Winter) 67-72.


43. with H M de Lange "Review of Ulrich Duchrow Global Economy: a Confessional Issue for the Churches? Geneva WCC 1987 and Charles Elliott Comfortable Compassion? Poverty, Power and the Church London Hodder and Stoughton 1987" in Ecumenical Review 40:2 April pp. 292-294.

44. "Socioeconomic Life: a Way of Confession" in Economics: a Matter of Faith - CCPD Documents: Justice and Development July 1988 No. 11 WCC Geneva, pp 63-71.
This is a republication of Chapter 3 from No. 24 above. It was initially published as No. 19.


45. "World Poverty - A Contribution" in World Poverty, Responsibilities of Churches and Christians, from the Minutes of 40th Meeting of the Central Committee of the World Council of Churches, Moscow 21 July, pp 24-36.

46. "Why poverty grows" One World 150 (Nov) pp 7-9.
This article is an abridged re-publication of "World Poverty - A Contribution" No. 45 above.


47. (contributor to project which devised the) "Oxford Declaration on Christian Faith and Economics" January 4-9 [off-site]

A revised and edited version of Goudzwaard's contribution can be found at No. 85, Economic Growth: Is More Always Better?, published by the University of Wales Press in Donald A Hay and Alan Kreider eds Christianity and the Culture of Economics, Cardiff 2001.

48. "Case Study: The Netherlands" in Rainbows in a Fallen World, IAPCHE, Dordt College Press, Sioux Center pp 238-248.


49. "Christian Politics in a Global Context" in James W Skillen and Rockne M McCarthy eds Political Order and the Plural Structure of Society Scholars Press, Atlanta pp. 335-354. © 1991 Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Reprinted by permission of the publisher, all rights reserved.


50. "Second Christian Social Congress in the Netherlands: 100 Years Later" Public Justice Report February p. 3 [off-site]

51. "Freedom and justice: evangelical responsibilities in politics and the economy" Epworth Review 19 (3) pp 24-31.

52. "Economics and Theology" One World 176 pp 15-17


53."Economic Life: A Confession" in Windows on Business Ethics; a Challenge to Christians Potchefstroom: PUCHE pp. 102-114
Republshes No. 29 (articles Nos. 27 & 28)


54. "Introductory Statement by the Moderator" at Kairos Europa consultation Brussels, European Parliament June 27. [off-site]

55. "Poverty and the Dynamics of Responsibility" Public Justice Report July-August p.2 [off-site]
See also here . This is the published abstract which was available for those attending the conference.


56. with Harry de Lange Beyond Poverty and Affluence: Toward an Economy of Care, foreword by Maurice Strong, translated and edited by Mark Vander Vennen, Eerdmans Grand Rapids/ WCC Geneva (originally published as Genoeg van te Veel, Geneog van to Weinig: Wissels omzetten in de economie 1986 Ten Have, Baarn, 3rd edition 1991).

57. Beyond Poverty and Affluence: Towards a Canadian Economy of Care, foreword by Maurice F Strong, translated and edited by Mark Vander Vennen, University of Toronto Press (originally published as Genoeg van te Veel, Geneog van to Weinig: Wissels omzetten in de economie 1986 Ten Have, Baarn, the Netherlands 3rd edition 1991).

58. "Types of Government Economic Policy" in Confessing Christ In Doing Politics, Essays on Christian Political Thought and Action Orientation IRS Potchefstroom pp 541- 560
This is a reprint of No. 36 above.

59. "Making Sense of Post-Modernity" Contribution to a Seminar of the Evangelical Alliance on Post-Modernity, London.


60. “Who cares? An Outsider’s Contribution to the American Debate on Poverty and Welfare" in: Stanley Carlson Thies & James W Skillen eds, Welfare in America, Christian Perspectives on a Policy in Crisis Eerdmans Grand Rapids pp 49-80
See 55 above. This was the published abstract which was available for those attending the conference. © 1996 Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Reprinted by permission of the publisher, all rights reserved.

61. “Toward a European Economy of Care” in Alastair Hulbert (ed) Towards an Economy of Care and Compassion, Occasional Paper 3 of the Ecumenical Association for Church and Society (EECS) Brussels pp. 5-12.

62. "Do the ends justify the means?" in Christianity and Democracy in South Africa IRS, Potchefstroom pp 179-198 pdf

63. “Globalization" in Metanoia, vol 6, 3 Prague, pp 92-103.
This is subtitled: an analysis presented at WARC consultation on "Reformed Church and Economic Justice" (11-17 May 1996, Geneva). See Nos. 65 and 75 below.

64."An Economy of care - two views" in Compass, A Jesuit Journal Nov 1996 pp 6-10 (with David Olive) [off-site]

65. "Globalization, exclusion, enslavement" in: Reformed World (World Alliance of Reformed Churches) vol. 46, p 99-108. [off-site]

66. "Europe at crossroads, a new challenge for Christian Higher Education" in Christians and Higher Education in Eastern Europe, Proceedings of the 1993 Debrecen Regional Conference of IAPCHE, Sioux Center, Dordt College Press, pp 42-50

67. "Toward an Economy of Caring and Sharing", Lecture for Seminar on Alternative Economics in the Global Market Era, Petra University, Surabaya

68. "Christianity and Economics" Lecture for NICE Shaping the Christian Mind Scholarly Conference Sydney August 1996


69. Preface to New Edition, Capitalism and Progress: A Diagnosis of Western Society in The Classics Library, Carlisle: Paternoster pp. xvii-xix.

70. "Towards a Future of Care" in: Ian Lambert and Suzanne Mitchell eds The Crumbling Walls of Certainty Sydney, Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity pp 40-49

71. "Mission in Western Culture, in Specific Relationship to Economic Life" Leslie Newbigin Seminar, June 4-6 WYSOCS, Leeds, UK

72. "Christianity and Economics" in Signposts of God's Liberating Kingdom: Perspectives for the 21st Century Vol. I IRS Potchefstroom pp 229-240 [off-site]

73. "Taking more than our share" with Stanley Yntema, Todd Wagenmaker, Neal Berghoef, Thomas C Huissen & Tom Bulten Banner Oct pp 16-19.

74. "Economic Justice as a Matter of Confession" Public Justice Report November-December p.2


75. "Spirals of life and death: the future of the global economy" Perspectives: a Journal of Reformed Thought 13 (3) pp 15-18
This was a republication of Nos. 63 and 65 above.

76. “Globalization, Regionalization and Sphere-Sovereignty" Lecture for the Conference Commemorating the Contribution of Abraham Kuyper, Princeton University. © 1998 Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, and is made available here with permission of the publisher, all rights reserved.

77. “Faith, Justice and Economics - Vision for a New Millenium" Stanley Stuber Lecture series, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, April 21, 23.
It is hoped to have an on-line copy of these lectures, as subsequently published in articles of the American Baptist Quarterly available by June 2008.see No. 86 "The Global Market: Enclosure and Exclusion Today" (April 21) and No. 87 "Reclaiming our Future: the Vision of Jubilee" (April 23) below

78. "Faith, the Economy and People Movements in the Era of Globalization: The Role of Churches and Non-Governmental Organizations" Silver Jubilee YBKS (Yayasan Bimbingan Kesajahterann Sosial - Social Welfare Guidance Foundation), Yogjakarta, Indonesia.

79. "Wake Up - Breaking the Hypnosis of our Age" Public Justice Report 4th Quarter, pp. 6-7
This is an excerpt from the 1999 Kuyper Lecture Globalization and the Kingdom of God (see No. 84 below).


80. "Perspectives of Christian Higher Education: the Social Sciences" in Natalia Pecherskaya ed Higher Education in XXIst Century Russian Culture: A Christian Perspective SRPH St Petersburg 2000

81. with André Droogers, "The Global and the Local: Community-based Culture and Economic Justice" in Lambert Zuidervaart & Hendrik Luttikhuizen (eds) The Arts, Community and Cultural Democracy London MacMillan pp 40 – 67.
It is hoped to have an on-line copy of this article available by June 2008.

82. "Globalization, Regionalization and Sphere-Sovereignty" in Luis E Lugo Religion, Pluralism and Public Life: Abraham Kuyper's Legacy for the Twenty-First Century Eerdmans, Grand Rapids pp. 325-341.
See No. 76 above. This is an edited version of the lecture. It is hoped to have an on-line copy of this chapter available by June 2008.


83. with Aad Vlot "We Are People of the Way: an Impression of the Final Session of the Conference" (Cultures and Christianity AD 2000), 21-25 August 2000 in Philosophia Reformata 66 (1) pp 142-152
It is hoped to have an on-line copy of this conference review available by June 2008.

84. Globalization and the Kingdom of God (Kuyper-Lecture 1999) ed James W Skillen, Center for Public Justice/ Baker Books, Washington DC and Grand Rapids.
A summary is found here [off-site]

85. "Economic growth - is more always better?" in Donald Hay & Alan Kreider eds, Christianity and the Culture of Economics Cardiff, University of Wales Press, pp 153-166

86. "The Global Market: Enclosure and Exclusion today" American Baptist Quarterly Volume XX: 2 June pp. 169-178 [off site]

87. "Reclaiming our Future, the Vision of Jubilee", American Baptist Quarterly Volume XX: 2 June pp. 179-90 [offsite]

88. "A Reaction to Mr Novak's contribution" Symposium on Leo XIII and Abraham Kuyper, Calvin College, October.
"A Century of Christian Social Teaching: The Legacy of Leo XIII and Abraham Kuyper" symposium was co-sponsored by Calvin Seminary and the Acton Institute.

Goudzwaard spoke in reply to Novak's paper, "Human Dignity, Personal Liberty: Themes from Abraham Kuyper and Leo XIII". It, with all other conference papers, was published in Markets and Morality at http://www.acton.org/files/mm-v5n1-novak.pdf

Goudzwaard's reply is at. http://www.acton.org/files/mm-v5n1-goudzwaard.pdf
The response of Nicholas Wolterstorff to the same paper is also available http://www.acton.org/files/mm-v5n1-wolterstorff.pdf
as are responses of Craig Gay and others.

89. "Reflections on the Budapest Conference" Ecumenical Review 53:4 October pp 512-517
Found at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2065/is_4_53/ai_81223347 . The site contains articles from The Ecumenical Review.


90. "Ethical Dimensions of a Globalising Economy" in Fritz Erich Anhelm (Hg) Gerechtigkeit – oder die Frage nach gerechten Beziehungen, Die Okumenische Bewegung im Prozess der Globalisierung Tagung zu Ehren Philip Potters, (Justice as Right Relationships: the Ecumenical Movement in the Process of Globalization: Conference in Honour of Philip Potter, 2nd Sept, 2001) Evangelische Akademie Loccum, 53/01, pp 49-61.

91. "What is Corporate Enterprise" Public Justice Report 2nd Quarter p. 11
This is the second of a PJR series on business. It is an edited excerpt from No. 24, Chapter 4 "The Liberation of the Business Enterprise" pp. 44, 45, 41, 46, 47.

92. with Julio de Santa Ana, "Globalization and Modernity" in Ninan Koshy ed. Globalization: the Imperial Thrust of Modernity, Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, Mumbai India, pp 1–33.

93. "And now the North" Semper Reformanda Update 10/2 June [off-site]
This brief report of the response of the Dutch Minister for Development Co-operation to the Jubilee 2000 campaign refers to a "Message to Churches in the North" http://www.warc.ch/pc/bangkok/01.html which is also reproduced in No. 94 below pp. 23-25.


94. with Leo Andringa as Contributing Editors, "Globalization and Christian Hope: Economy in the Service of Life" published in anticipation of the Ecumenical Conference of Western European Churches in Soesterberg, The Netherlands. Trans Mark Vander Vennen, 41 pp Public Justice Resource Centre, Toronto. February 2003. [off site]

95. "Freedom, Control and International Justice" in "American Strategy, Iraq, and the United Nations - Readers Respond" Public Justice Report [off-site]

96. "The Churches Witness in Today’s World" in Our International Task Today 50th Anniversary of the John Knox Center, John Knox Series nr 15, Geneva, pp 7–17
An edited version of this lecture is here

97. "Enrichment , Impoverishment and the Power of Exclusion" Contribution to the CLAI Consultation, April-May 1, 2003 Buenos Aires

98. "Sketch of Structural Violence in the Modern Globalizing Economy", Seminar on Global Violence, Wuppertal, Germany June 2003

99. "Christians in Resistance to the Neoliberal Culture of War" paper for Second International Consultation of the Christian Peace Conference, Zürich

100. "Seven Building Stones" (Closing remarks from the Chair) International Monetary Fund and World Bank consultation with World Council of Churches, Washington 11-12 September.


101."A Journey for Life - from Kitwe to Debrecen"

102."New Horizons for Economic Reflection", Contribution to the Focolare Conference on the Economy of Community, September 10-14, Rome.
Also available here. [off-site]

103. "Two Reflections on Bible and Economy", Geneva.


104. Awakening Hope" an interview Fiji Daily Post October 27,28,30 also posted at Sight Magazine [off-site]


105. with Julio de Santa Ana, "Stating the Problem" and "The Modern Roots of Economic Globalization" in Julio de Santa Ana et.al, Beyond Idealism, A Way Ahead for Ecumenical Social Ethics, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans pp 3-16 & 91-125.

106. "What Kind of Christianity in Present-Day Europe?" Presentation to International Workshop Christian Politics in Europe: An Uneasy Relationship? organised by Universitair Centrum Sint Ignatius, Antwerp April 27-28.

107. "Globalisation , Economic Theory and the Role of Modernity", lecture on the occasion of the 40th anniversary celebrations, Faculty of Economics, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico

108. "The Global Economy and Climate Change" December 1, WYSOCS, Leeds UK.


109. with Mark Vander Vennen, and David Van Heemst Hope in Troubled Times: A New Vision for Confronting Global Crises Foreword by Bishop Desmond Tutu. Grand Rapids, Baker.
Excerpt [off-site]

110. "Is There Any Reason to Hope? Introducing a New Book" Public Justice Report 3rd Quarter 30.3 [off-site]
This article features excerpts from No. 109.

111. "The Gospel and Global Climate Change" (with Mark Vander Vennen) Hope in Troubled Times Worldview Conference, ICS, Toronto District Christian High School, Oct 13th

112. "Globalization, Climate Change, and the Modern World-and-Life-View" Lamblight Lectures of the Geneva Society, Trinity Western University, 23rd October, Langley BC.


113. "Economic theory and the normative aspects of reality" (Translation of 1961 'De economische theorie en de normative aspected der werklijkheid in Perspectief (Kampden: J H Kok))

114. "Market, money, capital" with Rob van Drimmelen (this was a joint research paper produced for a WCC project convened to reassess socila ethics 1999-2001)


Hope in Troubled Times: A New Vision for Confronting Global Crises

Click here for contents, foreword and chapter 1 [pdf]

Author: Bob Goudzwaard, Mark Vander Vennen, and David Van Heemst
Foreword: Desmond Tutu
Edition: Paperback
Price: 19.99
Dimensions: 6 x 9
Number of Pages: 256
Publication Date: May 07

Description: We want to have it all: financial strength, secure homes, clean air and water for our children. With the latest technological advances available, we deserve to have every dilemma resolved. Isn't that the way it's supposed to work? Hope in Troubled Times dares to say "no."

Poverty, terrorism, and overtaxed land are planetary problems that make even believers despair. But the authors point to Christ as the source of hope. Our choice is obvious. We work together, learning to live unselfishly, or we watch civilization sink further into the abyss. With a foreword by renowned human rights activist Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Hope in Troubled Times provides real-world solutions to life-threatening problems. The authors show that with God's guidance we can knock down the idols that stunt clear thinking.

More details are available here.

Endorsements: "At a time when so many in our fragile, fractured, and violent world so understandably succumb to despair, rage, indifference, or escapism, this unsettling book issues an audacious manifesto of hope. Fired by a stirring biblical vision of shalom, the authors deploy their ample social science expertise to diagnose the idolatrous obsessions driving our global social, economic, and political crises and blocking their resolution. And they invite all of us--people of faith as well as those who open the book supposing they have none--to take the healing steps that already lie at hand. This book certainly afflicts the comfortable, but only so that the afflicted may indeed be comforted."--Jonathan Chaplin, director of the Kirby Laing Institute for Christian Ethics, Tyndale House, Cambridge

"These authors are spot on. Their words should be read widely!"--The Most Reverend Njongonkulu W. H. Ndungane, Anglican Archbishop, Cape Town, South Africa

"The real struggle of our time is the choice between cynicism and hope. Hope in Troubled Times argues persuasively that the power and possibility of biblical hope offers a resolution to the problems of combating terrorism, global poverty, and environmental degradation. Its analysis and engaging narrative challenge us to find new solutions grounded in that hope rather than in the idolatrous ideologies of our times."--Jim Wallis, author, God's Politics; editor, Sojourners

"The authors bear no trace of rancor toward Islam and Muslims, only understanding and empathy. The book draws a line between Islam--the religion of peace--and the terrorists who have hijacked Islam. In a desperate post-9/11 world, it searches for answers by analyzing the actions and the psyche of the two warring sides, echoing the views of both."--Javed Akbar, director of outreach, Pickering Islamic Centre, Ontario

"Hope in Troubled Times pulls off the difficult feat of communicating, in a gracious and nonjudgmental way, the dire straits in which our society finds itself today. Others have used the concept of idolatry as a category of social critique; no one has ever used it with such biblically-informed power and specificity. The analysis is sobering; no punches are pulled. But the ultimate context is hope, not despair. It's a remarkable achievement."--Nicholas Wolterstorff, Noah Porter Professor Emeritus of Philosophical Theology, Yale Divinity School

"This truly is a book of hope--one that combines vision with expert analysis of the major threats to humanity. It should be read by all who care for our future."--Edy Korthals Altes, former ambassador of the Netherlands; honorary president, World Conference of Religions for Peace

"We have needed what this book provides--a balanced, intelligent, and biblically sound interpretation of the current events we read about in our newspapers. The authors also give us cogent Christian alternatives to political policies that are having disastrous consequences for millions of oppressed people in our global village."--Tony Campolo, professor emeritus, Eastern University

"If one form of insanity is doing the same things over and over while expecting different results, our world has gone hopelessly mad. More development, more progress, more sound economics, and more political will has not and cannot transform spiraling violence, terminal poverty, ballooning wealth, indifferent market forces, and technologies and systems with wills of their own. Bob Goudzwaard, Mark Vander Vennen, and David Van Heemst see all this with 'epiphany eyes.' Their account of reality and the concrete hope they see is an awakening for those of us too long and too comfortable in the asylum we call the status quo."--Peter Vander Meulen, co-chair, Micah Challenge USA; coordinator, Office of Social Justice and Hunger Action of the Christian Reformed Church in North America

"Hope in Troubled Times is masterfully done. In a society that increasingly replaces a sense of the sacred with the deadly lure of materialism and violence, our communities need desperately to hear the message of this book: that there are genuine, life-affirming alternatives to the destructive path we are now on."--John M. Perkins, president, John M. Perkins Foundation for Reconciliation and Development

"Hope in Troubled Times is a must read for our bewildering era, when accepted political and economic solutions no longer work. In naming ideology as the real culprit, the authors provide a deeper and more compelling analysis than Samuel Huntington does in his Clash of Civilizations. Ideology points beyond paradigms and civilizations to the no-alternative absolutes that threaten humanity's very existence today."--William F. Ryan, SJ, founding director, Center of Concern, Washington, DC; former General Secretary of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops

"A profound analysis of root causes of--and root solutions to--the problems that plague the modern world. A provocative compass for taking us, step by small step, out of the woods. This book offers powerful understanding to thinkers and doers alike."--Armine Yalnizyan, research associate, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives

"Hope in Troubled Times analyzes the profound seriousness of the planet's present crises and the pathetic inadequacies of the ideologies we have to address the situation. It concludes with an appeal for a complete change in values and behaviors. This compelling volume is a moving piece of writing that deserves the attention of every person who cares about the world they are leaving their children and grandchildren."--Walter Pitman, OC, former member of Parliament, Canada; past president, Ryerson University

"I agree with this book's learned analysis of the devastating effects on humanity and its natural environment produced by the globalization of the unregulated market, the political aspirations of American empire, and the ethical void mediated by the dominant culture, even if my own philosophical and theological categories are somewhat different. In the grave present situation, this book offers hope in the name of Jesus Christ, who has embraced the entire human family and summons people to testify to his truth in counter-movements stemming the tide of the dominant current."--Gregory Baum, professor emeritus, McGill University

"This is actually the book everybody should read, so that the West can stop and take stock before calamities come."--Elaine Storkey, senior fellow, Wycliffe Hall; Alan Storkey, author of Jesus and Politics

"Hope in Troubled Times appears to expose a deep pit of despair before it arrives at a glimmer of hope. But Goudzwaard and his colleagues are not offering cheap hope. They hear the genuine cries of despair from the billions who are caught in violence, poverty, and hopelessness. They see the dead ends we are running into in our blind scramble for economic and technological progress. Their analysis of the global situation aims to go to the depth of real problems. Only by facing up to reality--to our own idolatries and degradations--is it possible to find a way of life that builds hope and leads to hopeful building. The book is as profound as it is illuminating."--James W. Skillen, president, Center for Public Justice, Washington, DC

"If you are looking for intelligent voices speaking from a deeply rooted and thoughtful Christian perspective--voices that provide a fresh and constructive alternative to the Religious Right--here they are. They awakened hope in me, but only after awakening a profound sense of alarm. Here is perceptive social diagnosis and wise prescription, thoroughly researched and broadly accessible."--Brian McLaren, author, lecturer, activist (anewkindofchristian.com)

"Without an in-depth struggle with the realities that render us paralyzed, numbed out, and fated, hope is mere sentimentality--a cheap wishfulness. Hope in Troubled Times grasps the nature of our troubles and the complex interrelatedness of the issues with a stunning and sometimes devastating clarity. . . . In the tradition of the Hebrew prophets, Goudzwaard, Vander Vennen, and Van Heemst deconstruct the ideologically loaded idolatries that plague us. And then, in a move of breathtaking audacity, they propose that paths of justice, love, and truth can be unshackled from their idolatrous chains and embraced as principles and directives embedded in nothing less than the very landscape of reality itself."--Brian J. Walsh, campus minister, University of Toronto; coauthor of Colossians Remixed: Subverting the Empire

"Hope in Troubled Times provides the kind of hope that can only come from seeing the darkness more clearly. It is a hope energized by the intellectual excitement of original insights into the nature of the ideologies and idols that hold us captive, and the possibilities for setting the captives free."--The Honourable Bill Blaikie, MP, Deputy Speaker, Dean of the House of Commons, Canada

Fonte: http://www.allofliferedeemed.co.uk/goudzwaard.htm


por José Maria Rodriguez Ramos - Presidente do Conselho Editorial do CIEEP

O tema crucial do processo de integração mundial são os valores que presidem o relacionamento internacional neste início de século e de milênio. O atentado ao World Trade Center surpreendeu o mundo. Após a fase inicial de estupor e revolta diante da tragédia, o desastre começou a ser esclarecido. Ao compasso das investigações sobre a ação terrorista, surgiram tentativas de explicação e a ética nas relações internacionais tornou-se o tema do momento.

Inicialmente ganhou força a tese do “choque das civilizações” enunciada por Samuel Huntington em 1997. O futuro das relações internacionais estaria associado ao fator cultural. As culturas que impregnam as diversas civilizações entrariam em conflito em uma conjuntura de integração mundial. A globalização, de acordo com Huntington, contribuiu para esse cenário e tem a sua parte de responsabilidade: “a globalização incentiva e permite que gente como Bin Laden trame seus ataques ao centro de Manhattan, enquanto está em uma gruta do Afeganistão pobre”. (O Estado de S.Paulo, 28/10/2001, pág. A23). O ataque terrorista, na opinião de Huntington, restituiu ao Ocidente sua identidade comum.

A interpretação dos ataques aos Estados Unidos levantou a questão de saber quais são os valores que presidem às diversas civilizações como elementos subjacentes à explicação dos acontecimentos e da história. É preciso esclarecer, entretanto, que o responsável pela tragédia não foi o mundo islâmico, mas apenas um grupo radical que não representa adequadamente o Islã. Como apontou Henry Kissinger, “a América e seus aliados precisam tomar cuidado para não apresentar esta nova política como choque de civilizações entre o Ocidente e o Islã. A batalha é contra uma minoria radical que macula os aspectos humanos manifestados pelo islamismo em seus períodos grandiosos” (Folha de S.Paulo, 20/11/2001, Especial, pág.6).

O episódio das Torres Gêmeas, entretanto, alertou o mundo quanto à importância dos valores que presidem as culturas e civilizações. Ou seja, a ética nas comunicações, na economia, na política e na cultura é o elemento-chave para o futuro do mundo. Este é o fator fundamental que deve ser analisado na globalização.

Antes de avançar nesse estudo é necessário indagar: há uma única ética correta, aplicável a uma determinada situação, ou a ética é passível de interpretação diversa em função de fatores circunstanciais? Mais: há valores universais, que se aplicam a todos os povos de todos os tempos, ou os valores éticos são relativos?

O mundo presente vive mergulhado no relativismo ético. Sob a égide do relativismo, a ética torna-se subjetiva, sendo impossível chegar a qualquer conclusão objetiva e permanente. Esse é o grande dilema e limitação do mundo moderno: a ética esqueceu as suas origens como estudo filosófico, na Grécia clássica, sob a poderosa luz da inteligência de Sócrates.

Ética Da Convicção X Ética Da Responsabilidade

Nas relações internacionais, por exemplo, o dualismo ético foi formulado por Max Weber ao distinguir entre uma ética da convicção e uma ética da responsabilidade: “toda a atividade orientada segundo a ética pode ser subordinada a duas máximas inteiramente diversas e irredutivelmente opostas. Pode orientar-se segundo a ética da responsabilidade ou segundo a ética da convicção” (Weber, 1968, pág. 113). O partidário da ética da convicção deve velar pela doutrina pura. Seus atos “visam apenas àquele fim: estimular perpetuamente a chama da própria convicção” (idem, pág. 114). A ética da responsabilidade, por sua vez, tem como guia as previsíveis conseqüências dos atos: “o partidário da ética da responsabilidade, ao contrário, contará com as fraquezas comuns do homem <...> e entenderá que não pode lançar a ombros alheios as conseqüências previsíveis da sua própria ação” (idem, págs. 113-114).

Sob este ponto de vista, Weber afirma que os meios podem justificar os fins: “para alcançar fins «bons», vemo-nos, com freqüência, compelidos a recorrer, por um lado, a meios desonestos ou, pelo menos, perigosos, e compelidos, por outro, a contar com a possibilidade e mesmo a eventualidade de conseqüências desagradáveis” (idem, págs.114). A diferença entre essas duas éticas, tal como as resume Dahrendorf, consiste em que “a primeira abraça valores absolutos; é a moralidade dos santos. A segunda reconhece a complexidade das relações meios-fins; é a ética dos políticos” (1997, pág. 86).

É possível conviver com as duas éticas? Tanto para Weber quanto para muitos políticos e teóricos das relações internacionais, sim. Para Dahrendorf, não; e explica: “a insistência na qualidade absoluta de determinados valores fundamentais foi, creio eu, a razão de ser da tese que apresentei em Homo Sociologicus. Nunca confie na autoridade, pois é possível usá-la de forma horrivelmente abusiva. É certo que há condições – e as vimos prevalecer em tantos países, durante este século – nas quais a «ética da convicção» é a única moralidade válida” (1997, pág. 87).

É somente a partir de uma ética da convicção que a análise dos valores nas relações internacionais e, portanto, na presente conjuntura de globalização que atravessa o mundo, pode ser frutífera. É precisamente a ética que presidiu o pensamento de Sócrates, Platão e Aristóteles, na Grécia clássica.

Ética E Virtudes

A partir do momento em que há um reconhecimento de que a ética não é relativa, é possível analisar quais os valores que devem estar presentes nos diversos aspectos da globalização. Estudar os valores presentes na globalização é analisar as motivações humanas. Muitas respostas foram dadas a esta questão, porém a proposta de Aristóteles na sua obra Ética a Nicômaco permanece atual e importante. Para Aristóteles, as pessoas atuam procurando um bem, sendo que o bem mais importante é a felicidade.

É possível estabelecer uma ponte entre os valores da globalização e a obra de Aristóteles. Reconhecendo que há diversas opiniões sobre a felicidade, Aristóteles afirma que alguns colocam a felicidade no prazer, ou na riqueza, ou em outras coisas. A maioria das pessoas coloca a felicidade na riqueza e no prazer; porém, de acordo com o filósofo, nesse objetivo não reside a felicidade. Espíritos mais refinados põem a felicidade na glória, porém também não é nas honras que reside a felicidade. A felicidade se encontra na virtude. É na virtude que reside o fim do homem.

Para quem coloca a felicidade na riqueza, a globalização econômica pode ser uma fonte de oportunidades. Para Aristóteles, a riqueza é um bem exterior necessário como um meio, pois é impossível fazer o bem quando faltam recursos; porém, não deixa de ser um meio e não um fim da vida humana.

A glória da vida pública está associada ao poder político. Também não é este o fim da vida humana, de acordo com Aristóteles. A virtude é o verdadeiro fim do homem. É por essa razão que Aristóteles dedica a sua ética ao estudo da virtude: como definir e alcançar as virtudes, como meio para uma vida feliz. No processo de globalização, os fatores econômicos e políticos são importantes como meios para que as pessoas possam praticar as virtudes. A virtude que sobressai nesse processo é a justiça. E a esta virtude é que o filósofo grego dedica o livro V da sua obra.

A justiça deveria presidir a evolução da globalização como um valor universalmente presente no processo. O reconhecimento do valor universal da justiça como virtude para todos e a ser praticada por todos seria um bom começo para o futuro dos âmbitos econômico e político. Entretanto, a prática da justiça pura e simples não eliminaria o fosso existente entre países nem superaria as limitações e dificuldades econômicas de países ou pessoas que carecem dos mínimos meios para a própria subsistência. É nesse ponto que surge um novo valor, não econômico, para amenizar e corrigir as distorções ou assimetrias promovidas pela globalização: a solidariedade.

A solidariedade não se impõe. É um valor humano que vem de dentro. Somente a solidariedade pode ajudar a mudar o que a simples justiça não pode alterar. Nas últimas décadas, pari passu com a globalização, tem aumentado o número de organizações de voluntários, ONGs, instituições religiosas e entidades diversas que têm contribuído para sarar as feridas abertas da desigualdade. Ainda assim, um sexto da população mundial vive em países muito pobres. Há muito a ser feito e somente a partir dos valores é possível corrigir aquilo que a política e a economia, no novo mundo a caminho de uma maior integração, não conseguem solucionar de um modo satisfatório.

São, portanto, os valores presentes nas civilizações os verdadeiros responsáveis pelo destino do futuro mundial nas próximas décadas e séculos. Se a justiça e a solidariedade prevalecerem sobre a riqueza e o poder, ainda há esperança para o nosso futuro comum.

Referências Biográficas

ARISTÓTELES. Ética Nicomaquea. Madri: Gredos, 1998.

DAREHNDORF, Ralf\. Após 1989. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1997.

HUNTINGTON, S. O Choque das Civilizações e a Composição da Ordem Mundial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 1997.

HUNTINGTON, S. Entrevista a Nathan Gardels (Global Viewpoint), Reproduzida em O Estado de São Paulo, 28/10/2002, p. A23.

KISSINGER, H. “Ataque terrorista exige reposta nova”. Folha de S. Paulo, 20/9/2001 -Especial, p. 6.

WEBER, M. Ciência e Política. São Paulo: Cultrix, 1968.

Fonte: http://www.acton.org/por/globalizao_e_tica.php


na Wikipédia

O Centro Interdisciplinar de Ética e Economia Personalista (CIEEP) é uma organização não governamental sem fins lucrativos, fundada em 1 de julho de 2002, no Rio de Janeiro, por intelectuais de diferentes áreas do conhecimento e oriundos de diversas partes do Brasil. Visa desenvolver um diálogo com os vários campos do conhecimento, além de introduzir a noção de economia personalista, acreditando no surgimento de um mundo mais humano, economicamente mais próspero e socialmente mais justo para as novas gerações.

1 Forma de atuação
2 Diretoria Executiva do CIEEP

Forma de atuação

Na consecução de seus objetivos, a interdisciplinariedade é fundamental, pois permite ao ser humano encontrar possibilidades que vão além de si mesmo e das aparentes circunstâncias do meio ambiente, via conhecimento legado pela filosofia, teologia, psicologia, literatura, música, artes plásticas, antropologia, história, sociologia, ciência política, direito e economia, dentre outros campos do saber.

O CIEEP pretende participar de forma prática e concreta da construção de um país democrático, próspero e justo, constituído de cidadãos livres, responsáveis e virtuosos. Para isso busca estabelecer parcerias de sucesso nos meios empresarial, cultural, acadêmico e religioso na realização de eventos, publicações e políticas públicas que tenham como fim último a valorização da dignidade de cada pessoa humana e a busca da verdade.

Diretoria Executiva do CIEEP

Ubiratan Iorio, Presidente Executivo
Alex Catharino, Vice-Presidente Executivo & CEO
Márcia Xavier de Brito, Vice-Presidente de Relações Institucionais & COO
Nelson A. F. de Sousa, Vice-Presidente Financeiro e CFO
Claudio Téllez, Vice-Presidente de Formação e Projetos
Rodrigo Arantes, Vice-Presidente de Responsabilidade Social e Políticas Públicas
Christian Lynch, Vice-Presidente de Programas Acadêmicos
Norma Braga, Vice-Presidente de Programas Culturais
Márcio Coimbra, Vice-Presidente de Programas Internacionais


por Ubiratan Iorio, Presidente Executivo do CIEEP

Em inglês, há duas palavras, ambas traduzidas para o português como “economia”: economics, que designa a Teoria Econômica e economy, que se refere à economia do mundo real. O que a maioria dos economistas parece ignorar é que o principal papel da teoria é tentar explicar e entender da melhor forma possível a realidade.

Em notável artigo escrito nos anos 40, The Use of Knowledge in Society, o Prof. Hayek examinou exaustivamente que tipo de conhecimento é adequado para ser utilizado como referencial teórico para as ciências sociais, em geral, e para a economia, em particular. Naquele trabalho, o notável economista austríaco faz notar, com a acuidade que lhe era peculiar, que o conhecimento que os agentes econômicos e sociais possuem apresenta duas características: a primeira é que ele é sempre incompleto e insuficiente, para que possam tomar decisões com absoluta certeza e a segunda é que ele se encontra disperso, isto é, desigualmente distribuído, cada agente detendo uma fração particular do total de conhecimento diferente das frações possuídas pelos demais. Ora, como a economia do mundo real (economy) é um processo de escolhas, em que cada agente toma decisões julgando, a priori, que estas serão as melhores no sentido de aumentar a sua satisfação, e como essas escolhas – que os economistas austríacos chamam simplesmente de “ação” – se dão ao longo do tempo bergsoniano, que nada mais é do que um suceder permanente de novas experiências, segue que as decisões tomadas no mundo da economia sempre se caracterizam pela existência de uma incerteza dita “genuína”, ou seja, não sujeita à teoria bayesiana das probabilidades, em que se constroem distribuições associando cada um dos eventos possíveis a números.

Outra característica da economia do mundo real ressaltada por Hayek – e que muitos economistas deixam de considerar – é que há dois tipos de conhecimento, o científico (digamos, o dos formuladores das políticas públicas) e o prático, por ele denominado de “conhecimento das circunstâncias de tempo e lugar”. Por exemplo, um professor de Economia, como o autor deste artigo, possui um estoque teórico de conhecimentos que tenta aplicar para analisar os fenômenos do mundo real, mas que é necessariamente diferente do estoque de conhecimentos de seu amigo Antonio Paura, um jornaleiro que, já de madrugada, sabe perfeitamente como encadernar os jornais e arrumar as revistas em sua banca.

Qual a importância disto? Bem, se me colocarem, às quatro horas da manhã, para encadernar jornais, eu não saberei nem como começar, mesmo descontando o efeito do sono; da mesma forma, se colocarem o paesano Antonio para dar uma aula de Economia Monetária, sucederá com ele o mesmo, embora, sendo um homem inteligente e com a experiência de vida que acumulou, poderá dar palpites muito menos escabrosos do que os de alguns economistas e articulistas. Se o conhecimento detido pelos cientistas ou planejadores fosse o mesmo que o dos homens práticos, o planejamento econômico centralizado e as políticas públicas poderiam conduzir a resultados desejados pelos formuladores das políticas, mas, como apenas uma parcela pequena do conhecimento de ambos forma uma interseção (por exemplo, tanto eu como o Paura sabemos que as notícias sobre o nosso Fluminense estão no caderno de esportes do jornal), todo e qualquer planejamento centralizado está fadado ao fracasso. Na antiga União Soviética, por exemplo, era comum faltarem sapatos de um determinado número durante meses, porque os planejadores que determinavam quantos pares de cada tamanho seriam produzidos eram inteiramente alheios ao mercado de sapatos. Nós, economistas, precisamos dar mais atenção à economia do mundo real, que é a que importa, e usar a Teoria Econômica apenas para que todos possam entendê-lo melhor.

Fonte: http://www.acton.org/por/a_economia_do_mundo_real.php